Container integration

Container technologies such as Docker are widely used to deploy applications in the cloud. Gramine has several tools to ease integration with different container technologies, described below.

Gramine Docker image

The Gramine team publishes a base Gramine Docker image at DockerHub:

This Gramine image is a minimal distribution of Gramine: it contains only Gramine binaries and tools, as well as the pre-requisite packages to run applications under Gramine. The only currently available Gramine image is based on Ubuntu 20.04. The only requirement on the host system is a Linux kernel with in-kernel SGX driver (available from version 5.11 onward).

This Gramine image can be used as a disposable playground environment, to quickly test Gramine with your applications and workloads. This image can also be used as a base for your workflows to produce production-ready Docker images for your SGX applications.

To run the Gramine image via Docker, the recommended command is:

docker run --device /dev/sgx_enclave -it gramineproject/gramine

If you want to run gramine-direct in addition to command:gramine-sgx, then you should run Docker with our custom seccomp profile using --security-opt seccomp=<profile_file>. You can download the profile file from Alternatively you can disable seccomp completely (--security-opt seccomp=unconfined).

GSC (Gramine Shielded Containers)

The GSC tool transforms an original Docker image into a new, “graminized” image which includes the Gramine Library OS, manifest files, Intel SGX related information, and executes the application inside an Intel SGX enclave using Gramine. It follows the common Docker approach to first build an image and subsequently run this image inside of a container. At first a Docker image has to be graminized via the gsc build command. When the graminized image should run within an Intel SGX enclave, the image has to be signed via a gsc sign-image command. Subsequently, the image can be run using docker run.

Note that GSC (Gramine Shielded Containers) tool is split from the core Gramine repository and can be found here:

Similarly, GSC documentation is split from the core Gramine documentation and is hosted here: