This is documentation for the development version of the project, aka master branch. If you installed Gramine from packages, documentation for the stable version is available at



Platform Adaptation Layer

PAL is the layer of Gramine that implements a narrow Drawbridge-like ABI interface (with function names starting with the Dk prefix)

Whenever Gramine requires a service from the host platform (memory allocation, thread management and synchronization, file system and network stacks, etc.), it calls the corresponding PAL functionality. The PAL ABI is host-platform agnostic and is backed by the host-platform specific PAL, for example, the Linux-SGX PAL.


A library to augment classic SSL/TLS sessions with Remote Attestation. RA-TLS extends the SSL/TLS handshake protocol to force one endpoint into verifying the SGX Quote embedded into the other endpoint’s certificate chain. RA-TLS is designed to be a drop-in replacement for classic SSL/TLS libraries.

Secret Provisioning

Secret provisioning is a mechanism to deliver secrets (such as encryption keys, passwords, etc.) from a remote trusted party inside a TEE. It is typically built on top of a Secure Channel.

Secure Channel

Secure channels are communication channels for trusted transmission of arbitrary data between a TEE and a remote trusted party or between two TEEs. They are typically built on top of the classic TLS/SSL channels.

Software Guard Extensions is a set of instructions on Intel processors for creating Trusted Execution Environments (TEE). See Introduction to SGX.
Thread Control Block