This is documentation for the development version of the project, aka master branch. If you installed Gramine from packages, documentation for the stable version is available at

Set up the host environment


Currently, Gramine has two backends: Linux (execution on the host Linux OS) and Linux-SGX (execution inside an SGX enclave). The Linux backend doesn’t require any specific environment. Thus, this page describes how to set up the SGX environment on your platform.

Gramine with SGX support requires several features from your system:

  • Intel SGX must be enabled in BIOS.
  • Linux kernel version must be at least 5.11 (starting from this version, Linux has the FSGSBASE feature and the SGX driver required by Gramine).
  • The Intel PSW must be installed.
  • The Intel DCAP must be installed if DCAP-based attestation will be used.

If your system doesn’t meet these requirements, please refer to more detailed descriptions in Build and install Gramine from source.

Check for SGX compatibility

We supply a tool, is-sgx-available – Check environment for SGX compatibility that checks the environment for SGX compatibility. Use this tool to check your hardware and system. It is installed together with the Gramine package.

Prepare a signing key

Only for SGX, and if you haven’t already, enter the following:


This command generates an RSA 3072 key suitable for signing SGX enclaves and stores it in $HOME/.config/gramine/enclave-key.pem. Protect this key and do not disclose it to anyone. See also gramine-sgx-gen-private-key – Gramine SGX key generator.

Signing an SGX enclave is a required step in Intel SGX. First, SGX platforms only load signed enclave images. Second, the enclave’s signed structure (called SIGSTRUCT) includes a measurement of the enclave code (called MRENCLAVE), the derivative of the public key (called MRSIGNER) and other metadata; thus, the process of enclave signing binds together these measurements of the loaded enclave, and subsequent SGX attestation can prove the genuineness of this enclave based on these measurements.